Researchers use purposive sampling to sample the participants of a study. It provides data from information-rich sources most suitable understudy. It is a quick and efficient sampling technique. This sampling technique comprises of some techniques. This article will explore the types and techniques of purposive sampling in research.
Understanding Purposive Sampling and Its Importance in a Research
Purposive sampling is a type of non-probability sampling technique. It refers to selecting participants with a purpose in a study. The purpose derives from the topic of the study. It may also be due to satisfying certain characteristics essential for the research. The researcher selects a sample with the help of its judgment abilities. So, the researcher selects a sample with its discretion of appropriateness. Its use is common in quantitative and qualitative methods. Researchers more often use this sampling technique in selecting participants. It provides an efficient sampling of the participants. It is suitable when researchers do not concern about the proportionality of samples. The other names of purposive sampling are as follows;
- Judgmental Sampling Technique.
- Subjective Sampling Technique.
- Selective Sampling Technique.
How to Make Samples in Purposive Sampling?
Making suitable samples for a study is easy in purposive sampling. The researcher can select the best-fit participants of the study with their knowledge. Following is the guideline to make samples in purposive sampling;
- Identify the irrelevant population of the study.
- Select the most relevant participants keeping in view the topic of the study.
- Identify chosen participants who are meeting the characteristics essential for research.
- Judge the appropriateness of the participants.
- Narrow down the best-fit sample for the study.
- The best-fit sample is ready to take part in the study.
What Are the Types and Techniques of Purposive Sampling?
Discussing with researchers of dissertation writing services, they told that there are seven types and techniques of purposive sampling in research. They are as follows;
Homogeneous Purposive Sampling
In this purposive sampling technique, each participant exhibits shared characteristics. These shared characteristics are homogenous in nature. These homogeneous characteristics may be age or gender. It may be qualification or nationality. They are essential for the research. For instance, researchers are willing to know about women harassment in the workplace. They will get data only from working females. This is a homogenous sample created on the basis of gender.
Maximum Variation Sampling
As the name implies, it carries diverse cases. These diverse cases are essential for conducting a research study. It is also known as the heterogeneous technique of purposive sampling. The underlying aim of this technique is to provide a diverse range of cases. They assist in collecting deep insights on the topic of the study. For instance, in a street murder case, the researcher will collect as much data as possible. The aim is to present a final statement on the basis of many evidences. This is an example of the heterogeneous technique of purposive sampling.
Typical Case Sampling
In this technique, the research samples data from a “typical” group of population. This typical sample is representative of the vulnerable population group. They are, in fact, affect the most. For instance, data collection from acid-attack victims in a study. The researcher’s focus on “acid victims” is a typical case.
Deviant Case Sampling
The researcher samples participant that diverges from the norm. They do so in understanding an issue or a trend. It is also known as expert case sampling. For instance, if a researcher wants to know the association between homework habits and high achievers of academia. The researcher will purposively sample from high academic achievers in the course.
Critical Case Sampling
In this technique, the researcher chooses one case as a basis of the study. The case may be usual or specific. The aim is to get a robust understanding of the topic under a case. Its understanding act as a lesson for current and future studies. It reflects the purest form of insight for the phenomenon under study.
Total population Sampling
The researcher selects an entire population group. This group exhibits shared characteristics. These shared characteristics may be one or more. It generates reviews of particular events or happenings. These reviews are easy to get within a large population set.
Researcher samples participants who have a wealth of expertise. Its use is common in the early process of a research study. The researcher gets information to get a deep understanding of the topic. This information assists the researcher well before embarking on the final process. They are helpful to the researcher in shaping the research objectives of the study. Moreover, they lay down the hypotheses as well.
What Are The Benefits Of Using Purposive Sampling in Research?
There are some benefits of using purposive sampling in a research study. They are as follows;
- It is a cost-effective sampling technique.
- It saves time for the researcher by eliminating irrelevant populations for a study.
- Also, it provides context-specific information.
- It allows the researcher to narrow down suitable participants with its judgment.
- There is less chance of error due to most appropriateness of the participants in the study.
- It provides greater room to generalise the findings of the study.
What Are The Disadvantages of Purposive Sampling in Research?
The purposive sampling technique has some disadvantages in research. These disadvantages are as follows;
- The participants can provide misleading information. It may lead to invalid findings.
- The analysis becomes difficult due to misleading findings.
- It may be subject to the researcher’s biasness in making samples.
- The sampling technique may lead to biasness as well.
- It is not effective for gathering data from large population groups.
Purposive sampling assists researchers to select samples on the basis of their judgment. These samples have essential characteristics suitable for the study. It saves time and cost for the researcher in data collection. The researcher can apply its techniques in sampling participants for the study. Yet, it involves bias and error of the researcher. Still, researchers use purposive sampling in quantitative and qualitative research methods.